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    Title: Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa Authors: Ramukhwatho, FR; Du Plessis, R; Oelofse, S Abstract: Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). The main goal of the study was to assess food waste by income level and the reasons for wasting food. Household food wastage was assessed using questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. A total of 210 households participated in the study that used a purposive sampling method. Results showed that high-income households wasted the most food. The main reason why food is wasted, as reported by the respondents, is that they prepare too much porridge and rice. Description: Proceedings of the 23rd WasteCon Conference, 17-21 October 2016, Emperors Palace, Johannesburg, South Africa

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    Title: Household food wastage – a case study of middle to high income urban households in the City of Tshwane Authors: Oelofse, SHH; Marx Pienaar, N Abstract: Municipal waste composition studies globally have indicated that significant amounts of food is wasted and disposed while there is potentially significant opportunity to prevent food wastage at household level (Lebersorger and Schneider, 2011). International trends suggest that food wastage moves up the food supply chain, from pre-consumer to post-consumer stages, as the level of development in a country increases (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2013). It is therefore likely that South Africa, as a developing economy may see similar trends in food waste over time. Little information is available on the food waste proportion of the household waste stream in South Africa, but it is estimated to be in the order of 15% (Nahman et al., 2012). This paper investigates the types of food wasted and self-reported percentage of purchased food wasted at household level in a sample of 301 urban households in the City of Tshwane. The results indicate that fruit and vegetables are the most wasted food groups and 53% of respondents rated this wastage as more than 20 % of their weekly fresh produce purchases. Description: Proceedings of the 23rd WasteCon Conference, 17-21 October 2016, Emperors Palace, Johannesburg, South Africa

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    Title: Implementing small, and medium enterprises (SME) waste and recycling programmes Authors: Muswema, A; Oelofse, SHH Abstract: Municipalities face the challenge of how to manage their waste, in an environment where other priorities like water, housing and electricity are competing for funding from municipal budgets. Management should include avoidance or prevention where possible and then diversion from landfill through source separation programs as per the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS)(DEA, 2011). The NWMS has committed to “69 000 new jobs created in the waste sector” and “2 600 additional SMEs and cooperatives participating in waste service delivery and recycling” (DEA, 2011: 6) by 2016. This challenge rests on the shoulders of local government for implementation. This paper is based on research work the CSIR (which the author and colleagues) conducted for the DBSA and Green fund on cooperatives in the waste and recycling sector. The findings discussed will provide some insight into what should be considered in establishing or implementing a viable waste SME program. Considerations for the SME organisation, the organisation supporting the SME, and external factors are discussed below. Description: Proceedings of the 23rd WasteCon Conference, 17-21 October 2016, Emperors Palace, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • 06/30/16--17:00: Outdoor air Pollution
  • Outdoor air Pollution Forbes, PBC; Garland, Rebecca M This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally. Copyright: 2016 Elsevier. Due to copyright restrictions, the attached PDF file only contains the abstract of the full text item. For access to the full text item, please consult the publisher's website.

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    Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker Dyosiba, Xoliswa; Ren, Jianwei; Musyoka, Nicholas M; Langmi, Henrietta W; Mathe, Mkhulu; Onyango, MS Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been considered with various novel applications and the development of cost-effective processes is essential for further practices. In this work, waste PET bottles were demonstrated as the source of acid linker to prepare value-added metal-organic frameworks UiO-66(Zr), and the texture properties as well as hydrogen storage capacity are comparable to those derived from commercial chemicals. This process offers an economically attractive strategy for eliminating waste PET stream while making value-added materials. Copyright: 2016 Elsevier. Due to copyright restrictions, the attached PDF file contains the accepted version of the article. The published version can be obtained via the publisher's website.

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    Baseline monitoring of mercury levels in environmental matrices in the Limpopo Province Walters, Chavon; Couto, M; McClurg, N; Silwana, B; Somerset, V Mercury (Hg) speciation and bioavailability were studied in surface water, surface sediment and freshwater fish samples collected upstream and downstream of the Medupi (currently under construction) and Matimba power stations in the Waterberg area, Limpopo Province. The initial survey was conducted in May 2010 and continued periodically/seasonally until October 2014. This study was designed to provide an overall description of the levels of Hg in areas potentially impacted by emissions from the coal-fired power station and provide the necessary information to enhance the understanding of the factors regulating the fate and transport of Hg in the environment. Percent loss on ignition (LOI) and ancillary water quality measurements were also carried out. In this study, the total mercury (TotHg) concentrations ranged between 0.92 and 29.13 ng/L, and 0.13 and 8.00 ng/L for methylmercury (MeHg) in water. Total Hg concentrations ranged between 0.50 and 28.60 ng/g, while the MeHg concentration ranged between 0.08 and 2.22 ng/g in sediments. Mercury concentrations in fish ranged between 40 and 1200 ng/g for TotHg, and 13.42 and 600 ng/g for MeHg. Methylmercury concentrations in freshwater fish sampled exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency criteria (300 ng/g) in 10% of the total fish sampled and 5% exceeded the WHO guideline (500 ng/g). Copyright: 2017 Springer. Due to copyright restrictions, the attached PDF file contains the post-print version of the article. For access to the published version, kindly consult the publisher's website.

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    Combined silver nanoparticles and temperature effects in the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus - Interactions between chemical and climatic stressors Walters, Chavon R; Cheng, Paul; Pool, EJ; Somerset, VS The influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and temperature variation on toxicity and oxidative stress responses were investigated in the tissues of the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus following a seven-day exposure period. Toxicity assessments of crabs exposed to different AgNP concentrations and temperature regimes showed that P. perlatus had a benchmark dose (BMD) of 782.77 µg/mL AgNPs and Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) of 25.37°C. Biochemical analysis indicated that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity was significantly affected by AgNPs. Contrary to other studies, our results show that the haemolymph are more susceptible to oxidative stress originated by AgNPs and temperature stress, whereas the gills constitutes the main storage organ for Ag. These findings suggest that seven day exposure to concentrations of AgNPs and temperature stress caused induced antioxidant defences of P. perlatus. All articles published in Journal of Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright laws. Copyright © 2017, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.

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